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Thyroid Cancer

About

Thyroid cancer is a rare type of cancer that affects the thyroid gland, a small gland at the base of the neck that produces hormones.

It's most common in people in their 30s and those over the age of 60. Women are two to three times more likely to develop it than men.

Thyroid cancer is usually treatable and in many cases can be cured completely, although it can sometimes come back after treatment.

This page covers:

Symptoms

When to get medical advice

Types

Causes

Treatments

Outlook

Symptoms of thyroid cancer

Symptoms of thyroid cancer can include:

  • a painless lump or swelling in the front of the neck – although only 1 in 20 neck lumps are cancer
  • swollen glands in the neck
  • unexplained hoarseness that doesn't get better after a few weeks
  • sore throat that doesn't get better
  • difficulty swallowing

Read more about the symptoms of thyroid cancer.

When to get medical advice

See your GP if you have symptoms of thyroid cancer. The symptoms can be caused by less serious causes, such as an enlarged thyroid (goitre), so it's important to get them checked out.

Your GP will examine your neck and can organise a blood test to check how well your thyroid is working.

If they think you could have cancer or they're not sure what's causing your symptoms, you'll be referred to a hospital specialist for more tests.

Read more about how thyroid cancer is diagnosed.

Types of thyroid cancer

There are four main types of thyroid cancer:

  • papillary carcinoma – the most common type, accounting for about 8 in 10 cases; it usually affects people under 40, particularly women
  • follicular carcinoma – accounts for up to 1 in 10 cases and tends to affect middle-aged adults, particularly women
  • medullary thyroid carcinoma – accounts for less than 1 in 10 cases; unlike the other types, it can run in families
  • anaplastic thyroid carcinoma – the rarest and most serious type, accounting for around 1 in 50 cases; it usually affects people over the age of 60

Papillary and follicular carcinomas are sometimes known as differentiated thyroid cancers. They tend to be easier to treat than the other types.

Causes of thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer occurs when a change to the DNA in the cells in the thyroid causes them to grow uncontrollably and produce a lump.

It's not usually clear what causes this, but there are a number of things that can increase your risk.

These include:

  • other thyroid conditions, such as an inflamed thyroid (thyroiditis) or goitre – but not an overactive thyroid or underactive thyroid
  • a family history of thyroid cancer – your risk is higher if a close relative has had thyroid cancer
  • radiation exposure in childhood – such as radiotherapy
  • obesity
  • a bowel condition called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  • acromegaly – a rare condition where the body produces too much growth hormone

Treatments for thyroid cancer

Treatment for thyroid cancer depends on the type of thyroid cancer you have and how far it has spread.

The main treatments are:

  • surgery – to remove part or all of the thyroid
  • radioactive iodine treatment – you swallow a radioactive substance that travels through your blood and kills the cancer cells
  • external radiotherapy – a machine is used to direct beams of radiation at the cancer cells to kill them
  • chemotherapy and targeted therapies – medications used to kill cancer cells

After treatment, you'll be advised to have regular appointments to check whether the cancer has come back.

Read more about how thyroid cancer is treated.

Outlook for thyroid cancer

Overall, the outlook for thyroid cancer is good. Around 9 in every 10 people are alive five years after diagnosis. Many of these are cured and will have a normal lifespan.

But the outlook varies depending on the type of thyroid cancer and how early it was diagnosed.

For example:

  • more than 9 in 10 people with papillary carcinoma live at least five years after diagnosis
  • more than 8 in 10 people with follicular carcinoma live at least five years after diagnosis
  • around 6 or 7 in 10 people with medullary thyroid carcinoma live at least five years after diagnosis
  • fewer than 1 in 10 people with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma live at least five years after diagnosis

The cancer comes back in another part of the body, such as the lungs or bones, in up to one in four people treated for thyroid cancer. But it can often be treated again if this happens.


Further information on thyroid cancer

Information Prescription Service

To access the Information Prescription Service and the national cancer information pathway for thyroid cancer please click on the link below. Then click on 'Specialist information from our charity partners'

www.nhs.uk

Macmillan Cancer Support Website

www.macmillan.org.uk

Cancer Research UK Website

www.cancerresearchuk.org

Further Information

Visit or phone a local cancer information centre

There are several cancer information and support centres in Essex Cancer Network where anyone affected by cancer can be sure of a warm welcome and high quality, accurate, evidence-based information:

Basildon Hospital Macmillan Info and Support Centre, Outpatients Dept, Basildon Hospital, staffed Monday 2pm - Friday 12.30pm,tel: 0845 155 3111 extension 4908

Macmillan Info and Support Centre,Essex County Hospital, Outpatients Dept, Monday - Friday office hours, tel: 01206 747474

Information Resource Service, St Luke's House, Corringham,Thurrock, Monday to Friday office hours, tel: 01375 648170

Lantern Suite, Farleigh Hospice,Chelmsford, Monday to Friday office hours, tel: 01245 457418

Hospice Outreach Project Information Bus, Farleigh Hospice, covers the Chelmsford area. Contact Farleigh Hospice as above

For more information, please contact the service direct.

 

Visit your local library in Essex Cancer Network

Essex, Southend and Thurrock library services have worked in partnership with Macmillan Cancer Support and the Essex Cancer Network to establish collections of quality assured information books and pamphlets about cancer. These can be accessed at any library: just ask. Additionally some staff at libraries have been trained to help patients use the Information Prescription Service.

Contact Macmillan Cancer Support Helplines

If you have any questions about cancer, need support or just someone to talk to, call free, Monday to Friday 9am - 8pm (interpretation service available) tel: 0808 808 0000

For financial queries tel: 0808 808 2232

 

Remember: Stay safe online when looking for support!

Internet chat rooms and message forums can be valuable sources of support and comfort, enabling you to meet others in the same position. However, there is potential for abuse - please read these guidelines before you set off to explore...

Click here to download the draft guidelines

 

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